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In 1525, the district fell under the control of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, a colony of Spain, which retained authority until independence in 1821.
During the colonial period, the Spaniards replaced the communal property of the indigenous population with a system of private property.
Some remnants of the Pipil language remain in everyday Salvadoran Spanish. The flag consists of two blue horizontal stripes with a white stripe in the middle.
In the center is a coat of arms inscribed "1821," the year of independence.
Coffee grown in the mountains and cane grown on the coast provide the rural population with paid labor; in the central valleys, corn and beans are grown for private consumption and for sale.
Most industry is in the center, where the capital, San Salvador, is located.
That year the United Provinces of Central America were formed from five Central American countries.
Guanaco, a type of bird, is a slightly derogative nickname used by other Central Americans and some Salvadorans. El Salvador is a country of 8,260 square miles (21,040 square kilometers) in Central America, between Guatemala and Honduras.The first decades of independence saw uprisings by poor mestizos and Indians to protest their impoverishment and marginalization.Before the cultivation of coffee was introduced in the late nineteenth century, indigo was the principal export crop.Mountains separate the country into the southern coastal belt, the central valleys and plateaus, and the northern mountains.
These regions have created slight cultural variations because of the different crops grown in each one.Very few Salvadorans now speak the indigenous language, which virtually disappeared after 1932, when General Maximilio Hernández Martínez suppressed rural resistance by massacring 30,000 mostly Indian rural peasants.