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For example, Likert scale responses typically require the participant to indicate on a scale from one to five how often they see alcohol marketing, with one being never and five being daily.

Consequently, these studies may not provide accurate nor quantifiable measures of the extent or nature of children’s exposure to alcohol marketing.

In New Zealand (NZ), over half (57%) of children aged 15–17 consumed alcohol, with 7.8% drinking hazardously (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] score ≥8, a screening tool used to define hazardous drinking) (Ministry of Health, 2016).

Māori (indigenous population in NZ) aged 15 years and older are 1.5 times more likely than non-Māori to be hazardous drinkers.

There appears to be only one study that has attempted to quantify children’s exposure using another method (Collins , 2016).

Using handheld electronic computers, capable of taking photos and manually entering survey data, the authors found children saw alcohol marketing 3.06 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 3.04, 3.07) times per day in real-time, across a range of marketing media.

There is mounting evidence, including multiple systematic reviews, that childhood exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood children will begin drinking alcohol and increases consumption in current drinkers (Anderson , 2016).

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Children were exposed at home (47%), on-licence alcohol retailers (19%), off-licence shop fronts (16%) and sporting venues (12%), and via sports sponsorship (31%) and shop front signage (31%) and merchandise (25%).Children wearing wearable cameras were exposed 4.5 times per day to alcohol marketing in multiple places and via a range of marketing media.The results reinforce calls for legislative restrictions and a global response to alcohol marketing in order to protect children and reduce alcohol-related harm.While this is an improvement over self-report Likert scale measures, the study results are likely an underestimate as the method required the participants’ conscious recognition of exposure and high user compliance, and ignored repeat exposes of the same marketing later in the day.

Thus, while important, this and other previous studies often do not provide a quantifiable measure of the nature and extent of children’s daily exposure to alcohol marketing.

Sponsorship and in-store promotions tend to sit outside the scope of most self-regulatory systems but have overtaken traditional forms of marketing for alcohol companies (Casswell, 2012).